Alexander G. Bell und das Telefon des Antonio Meucci[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Siehe auch: Erfindung. Als am Februar des Jahres beim amerikanischen Patentamt Alexander Graham Bell ein Patent für ein Telefon einreichte, war den bearbeitenden. Mitte des Jahrhunderts wird das Telefon gleich vierfach erfunden. Am Ende aber kassiert Alexander Graham Bell den Ruhm.
Erfindung des TelefonsAuch war dieses erste Telefon war nicht sonderlich gebrauchsfähig. meldet Alexander Graham Bell sein Telefon zum Patent an und verbesserte es immer. Und auch in Deutschland wurde das Telefon erfunden. Gemeinhin gilt der Amerikaner Alexander Graham Bell als der Erfinder des Telefons. Meine Meinung Jill <3. Ich wollte schon immer wissen wer das Telefon erfunden hatte und wie man es erfunden hatte. Mir hat dieses Thema sehr gut gefallen.
Alexander Graham Bell Erfindungen Navigační menu VideoAlexander Graham Bell Biography
For years, scientists and Live TV. This Day In History. History at Home. Telephone In , Bell started working on the harmonic telegraph — a device that allowed multiple messages to be transmitted over a wire at the same time.
While the Bell Company faced over court challenges, in the end, none were successful. Inventions and Accomplishments In addition to the telephone, Bell worked on hundreds of projects throughout his career and received patents in various fields.
Some of his other notable inventions were: The metal detector: Bell initially came up with this device to locate a bullet inside of assassinated President James A.
Photophone: The photophone allowed transmission of speech on a beam of light. Graphophone: This improved version of the phonograph could record and play back sound.
Audiometer: This gadget was used to detect hearing problems. Eugenics In , Bell was given the controversial title of honorary president at the Second International Congress of Eugenics.
Successful ideas are the result of slow growth. He wants to improve whatever he sees, he wants to benefit the world; he is haunted by an idea.
The spirit of invention possesses him, seeking materialization. Im Jahr schufen Alexander und andere Wissenschaftler den harmonischen Telegraphen, ein Gerät, das mehrere simultane Nachrichten über Töne unterschiedlicher Frequenzen übertragen sollte.
Aus dieser Erfindung entstand die Idee, ein anderes Gerät von besserer Qualität und besserer Kommunikation herzustellen: das Telefon kam an.
Nach der Schaffung dieses Geräts kamen andere an, die auch die Zukunft der Telekommunikation und Technologie verändern würden.
Es ist ein Gerät für die Kommunikation zwischen Menschen. Die meisten Telefone sind einfach zu bedienen, einige sind weniger teuer als andere und fast jeder hat einen.
Obwohl es moderne Telefone gibt, die Funktionen haben, um Videoanrufe, Ferngespräche und Anwendungen zu machen, um mit Leuten aus anderen Teilen der Welt zu sprechen, gibt es andere, die nur Textnachrichten und Anrufe haben.
Teaching his father's system, in October , Alexander Bell opened his "School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech" in Boston, which attracted a large number of deaf pupils, with his first class numbering 30 students.
She was later to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges". Several influential people of the time, including Bell, viewed deafness as something that should be eradicated, and also believed that with resources and effort, they could teach the deaf to read lips and speak known as oralism  and not use sign language , thus enabling their integration within the wider society from which many were often being excluded.
During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home. At Boston University, Bell was "swept up" by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors residing in the city.
He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation.
While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house.
Keeping "night owl" hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment.
Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover. Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell retained only two students, six-year-old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth, and year-old Mabel Hubbard.
Each pupil would play an important role in the next developments. George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay in nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment".
Although the offer was made by George's mother and followed the year-long arrangement in where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell's boarding house, it was clear that Mr.
Sanders was backing the proposal. The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together, with free room and board thrown in.
Having lost her hearing after a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever close to her fifth birthday,   [N 12] she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.
By , Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage, with progress made both at his new Boston "laboratory" a rented facility and at his family home in Canada a big success.
Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves. But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.
In , telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton , had become "the nervous system of commerce".
Antonio Meucci sent a telephone model and technical details to the Western Union telegraph company but failed to win a meeting with executives.
When he asked for his materials to be returned, in , he was told they had been lost. Two years later Bell, who shared a laboratory with Meucci, filed a patent for a telephone, became a celebrity and made a lucrative deal with Western Union.
Meucci sued and was nearing victory—the supreme court agreed to hear the case and fraud charges were initiated against Bell—when the Florentine died in The legal action died with him.
In March , Bell and Pollok visited the scientist Joseph Henry , who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution , and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph.
Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!
However, a chance meeting in between Bell and Thomas A. Watson , an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that.
With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell hired Thomas Watson as his assistant, [N 14] and the two of them experimented with acoustic telegraphy.
On June 2, , Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech.
That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds. This led to the "gallows" sound-powered telephone , which could transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech.
In , Bell developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U.
Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter.
On February 14, , Gray filed a caveat with the U. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter.
That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office. There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent.
Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February Bell's patent ,, was issued to Bell on March 7, , by the U.
Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically On March 10, , three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design.
Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the sentence "Mr.
Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter,  Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.
Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray,  Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent had been granted, and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment,  to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" Bell's words could be electrically transmitted.
The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the examiner before he approved Bell's patent application.
He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat. Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in his previous application in which he described a cup of mercury, not water.
He had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, , long before Elisha Gray described the water device.
In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell's priority, the examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.
The patent examiner , Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey , with whom he had served in the Civil War.
He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed after Bell arrived in Washington D. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details.
Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money. On March 10, Bell used "the instrument" in Boston to call Thomas Watson who was in another room but out of earshot.
He said, "Mr. Watson, come here — I want to see you" and Watson soon appeared at his side. Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone.
On August 3, , from the telegraph office in Brantford, Ontario, Bell sent a tentative telegram to the village of Mount Pleasant four miles six kilometres distant, indicating that he was ready.
He made a telephone call via telegraph wires and faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family with a call between the Bell Homestead and the office of the Dominion Telegraph Company in Brantford along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel.
This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. The third test on August 10, , was made via the telegraph line between Brantford and Paris, Ontario, eight miles thirteen kilometres distant.
This test was said by many sources to be the "world's first long-distance call". The first two-way reciprocal conversation over a line occurred between Cambridge and Boston roughly 2.
The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.
Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public.
A short time later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention.
One of the judges at the Exhibition, Sir William Thomson later, Lord Kelvin , a renowned Scottish scientist, described the telephone as "the greatest by far of all the marvels of the electric telegraph".
These were the first publicly witnessed long-distance telephone calls in the UK. The queen considered the process to be "quite extraordinary" although the sound was "rather faint".
The Bell Telephone Company was created in , and by , more than , people in the U. Bell Company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever.
In , the Bell company acquired Edison's patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union. This made the telephone practical for longer distances, and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone.
In January , Bell made the first ceremonial transcontinental telephone call. The New York Times reported:. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston.
It was the first wire conversation ever held. Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, ], the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,mile wire between New York and San Francisco.
Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent.
As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone.
Supreme Court ,  but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent   and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage.
In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims.
On January 13, , the U. Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation.
After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided.
With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest on both sides arising from the original trial, the US Attorney General dropped the lawsuit on November 30, , leaving several issues undecided on the merits.
During a deposition filed for the trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in In , in the first of three cases in which he was involved, [N 16] Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hope of establishing his invention's priority.
Meucci's testimony in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions, as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of American District Telegraph ADT of New York, which was later incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union in House of Representatives on June 11, , stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged".
The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties.
The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.
His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1, of his 1, shares in the newly formed Bell Telephone Company. During that excursion, Bell took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday".
The courtship had begun years earlier; however, Bell waited until he was more financially secure before marrying. Although the telephone appeared to be an "instant" success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell's main sources of income were from lectures until after From , he would sign his name "Alec Bell".
The Bell family home was in Cambridge, Massachusetts, until when Bell's father-in-law bought a house in Washington, D.
Bell was a British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until when he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.
In , he characterized his status as: "I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries. By , a new summer retreat was contemplated.
He was an enthusiastic boater, and Bell and his family sailed or rowed a long series of vessels on Bras d'Or Lake , ordering additional vessels from the H.
In his final, and some of his most productive years, Bell split his residency between Washington, D. Bis zu seinem Tode im Jahre beschäftigte sich Bell mit vielen weiteren Entwicklungen und Erfindungen auf zahlreichen technischen Gebieten.
Er unterstützte die beginnende Luftfahrt, baute schnelle Motorboote und befasste sich auch mit der Tierzucht. Im Jahrhundert, also in der Zeit der Erfindung des Telefons haben sich verschiedene Forscher unabhängig voneinander mit diesem Thema beschäftigt.
On March 7, , the Patent Office awarded Bell what is said to be one of the most valuable patents in history. It is most likely that both Bell and Gray independently devised their telephone designs as an outgrowth of their work on harmonic telegraphy.
However, the question of priority of invention between the two has been controversial from the very beginning. Despite having the patent, Bell did not have a fully functioning instrument.
He first produced intelligible speech on March 10, , when he summoned his laboratory assistant, Thomas A. Watson—come here—I want to see you.
In August of that year, he was on the receiving end of the first one-way long-distance call, transmitted from Brantford to nearby Paris, Ontario, over a telegraph wire.
Although his invention rendered him independently wealthy, he sold off most of his stock holdings in the company early and did not profit as much as he might have had he retained his shares.
Thus, by the mids his role in the telephone industry was marginal. By that time, Bell had developed a growing interest in the technology of sound recording and playback.
Although Edison had invented the phonograph in , he soon turned his attention to other technologies, especially electric power and lighting, and his machine, which recorded and reproduced sound on a rotating cylinder wrapped in tinfoil, remained an unreliable and cumbersome device.
In the French government awarded Bell the Volta Prize, given for achievement in electrical science. Bell used the prize money to set up his Volta Laboratory, an institution devoted to studying deafness and improving the lives of the deaf, in Washington, D.
There he also devoted himself to improving the phonograph. By Bell and his colleagues his cousin Chichester A. Bell and the inventor Charles Sumner Tainter had a design fit for commercial use that featured a removable cardboard cylinder coated with mineral wax.
They called their device the Graphophone and applied for patents, which were granted in The group formed the Volta Graphophone Company to produce their invention.
Then in they sold their patents to the American Graphophone Company, which later evolved into the Columbia Phonograph Company.
Bell used his proceeds from the sale to endow the Volta Laboratory. Bell undertook two other noteworthy research projects at the Volta Laboratory.
In he began research on using light as a means to transmit sound.With no formal training, he mastered the piano and became the family's pianist. Lotto Almanya Outline Portal Commons. Toronto, Ontario: Natural Science of Canada. Edward Beyond his scientific work, Bell was an advocate of compulsory sterilization and served as chairman or president of several eugenics organizations. December 27, Tabelle Premiere League, UK: Mainstream Publishing. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. February 5, Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Retrieved: December 29, When Bell said that he did not have the necessary Esl League Of Legends, Henry replied, "Get it! He Em Freundschaftsspiele an enthusiastic boater, Spiel Murmeln Bell and his family sailed or rowed a long series of vessels on Bras d'Or Lakeordering additional vessels from the H. Views of an Expert. Bell's father was invited by Sarah Fullerprincipal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes which continues today Mahjong Online Free Games the public Horace Mann School for the DeafEtoro Kontoauszug in Boston, Roulette Deutsch, United States, to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors, but he declined the post in favour of his son. Bell, Alexander Graham A group of investors led by Gardiner Hubbard wanted to establish a federally chartered telegraph company to compete with Western Union by contracting with the Post Office to send low-cost telegrams. Edward would never recover. Die historisch nachhaltigste Wirkung hatte. Alexander G. Bell und das Telefon des Antonio Meucci[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Siehe auch: Erfindung. Ein Schauspieler in der Rolle von Alexander Graham Bell spricht in ein Telefon. Auch war dieses erste Telefon war nicht sonderlich gebrauchsfähig. meldet Alexander Graham Bell sein Telefon zum Patent an und verbesserte es immer. Inventions. Bell's genius is seen in part by the eighteen patents granted in his name alone and the twelve that he shared with others. These included fifteen for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone, one for the phonograph, five for aeronautics, four for hydrofoils, and two for a selenium cell. The Beinn Bhreagh Recorder was a regular publication, created by Alexander Graham Bell, that recorded the progress of Bell's various scientific research projects as well as local and family events at his summer home in Nova Scotia. Laboratory Notebooks - Home Notes, Volume 64, Laboratory Notebooks - Laboratory Notes, Volume 31, Birthplace Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on March 3, Bell’s father was a professor of speech elocution at the University of Edinburgh and his mother, despite being. pandgspeakeasycafe.com - Help support more content like this! Alexander Graham Bell went down in history as the inventor of the telephone. He was bor. Alexander Graham Bell - Erfinder des ersten funktionsfähigen Telefons Alexander Graham Bell war ein Sprachtherapeut, Erfinder und später auch ein Großunternehmer. Er wurde am 3. März in Edinburgh (Schottland) in einer Gelehrtenfamilie geboren.